In every Chemistry laboratory, one copy of the periodic table of chemical elements hangs in virtually and is considered as one of the greatest accomplishments of science. In what is likely to further the advancement of such concise and profound consolidation of scientific knowledge, the seventh row of periodic table is finally filled as four new elements have been added in it. The chemistry community will be excited to see its most cherished table finally being completed down to the seventh row. The discovery of four super-heavy chemical elements has been carried out by scientists from Russia, Japan and the United States. The formal addition of elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 has completed the seventh row of periodic table and the science textbooks around the world have been rendered instantly out of date.
The research was being continued since last seven years by the scientists to secure a place for elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 on the periodic table. Till now these four elements manifested only for a very short span of time – about a thousand of one second – making it very difficult for scientists to prove their existence.
On December 30, the four newly discovered elements were verified by the US-based International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the global organization that governs chemical nomenclature, terminology and measurement. IUPAC announced that a Russian-American team of scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California had produced sufficient evidence to claim the discovery of elements 115, 117 and 118.
The discoverers from Japan, Russia and the USA will now be invited to suggest permanent names and symbols. However the elements have been temporarily named as Ununtrium, (Uut or element 113), Ununpentium (Uup, element 115), Ununseptium (Uus, element 117) and Ununoctium (Uuo, element 118).
The proposed names and symbols will be checked by the Inorganic Chemistry Division of IUPAC for consistency, translatability into other languages, possible prior historic use for other cases, etc. It is expected that the new names can be based on a mythological concept, a mineral, a place or country, a property or a scientist. The names and the two letter symbols will be presented for public review for five months. Thereafter the highest body of IUPAC, the Council, will make a final decision on the names of these new chemical elements and their two-letter symbols and their introduction into the Periodic Table of elements.
According to IUPAC’s website, the fourth IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) on the priority of claims to the discovery of new elements has reviewed the relevant literature for elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 and has determined that the claims for discovery of these elements have been fulfilled, in accordance with the criteria for the discovery of elements of the IUPAP/IUPAC Transfermium Working Group (TWG) 1991 discovery criteria.